This paper is part of series of studies focusing on the measurement and definition of institutions. This paper presents a database on institutional measures for Tanzania for the period 1884 to 2008. These indicators are used to assess the nature of political and economic institutional transformation from the colonial legacy to the modern outcome, using Tanzania as a natural experiment. The paper argues that despite changes in colonial regimes, the broader framework of institutions remained partly the same. This is reflected in the post-independence period in Tanzania, where the title of the president was substituting the governor titles in some land laws. Similarly, draconian laws similar to the colonial laws were enacted to curtail political freedom in the post-independence period.