The paper examines whether endogenous growth processes can be found in middle income country contexts. Estimation proceeds by means of dynamic heterogeneous panel analysis. Empirical evidence finds in favour of positive impacts on total factor productivty growth by Schumpeterian innovative activity. A crucial finding is that it is the quality of human capital rather than the quantity of human capital that is important for TFP growth. We also find that human capital is both influenced by, and determines the institutions of society that serve to determine the long run productivity of all factors of production.