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Gender and Birth Order Effects on Intra-household Schooling Choices and Education Attainments in Kenya

Fredrick M. Wamalwa & Justine Burns
Publication date
September 2017
In this paper, we investigate the effect of two important family characteristics-gender and birth order-on intra-household investments in, and educational outcomes of, children in Kenya. We measure intra-household education investments in children by household's decision to enrol children in private schools and educational outcomes by two variables, completed years of education and relative grade attainment. We use a large household survey data set that allows us to apply family fixed effects models that address the potential endogeneity of children's gender, birth order and family size as well as factors that are unobservable at the household level. Although we do not find an intra-household gender preference in terms of investments in children's education, there is a female advantage in terms of the two measured education outcomes. Our results show significantnegative birth order effects on private enrolment, completed years of education and relative grade attainment. Family wealth plays a significant role in propagating the gender and birth order effects we observe.
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Series title
Working paper 708
JEL classifications