Local people’s perceptions of protected areas greatly determine the success of conservation efforts in Southern Africa as these perceptions affect people’s attitudes and behaviour in respect to conservation. As a result, the involvement of local communities in transboundary wildlife conservation is now viewed as an integral part of regional development initiatives.
Participation of local communities in management and utilization of forest resources through collective action has become widely accepted as a possible solution to failure of centralized top down approaches to forest conservation. Developing countries have thus resorted to devolution of forest management through initiatives such as Participatory Forest Management (PFM) and Joint Forest Management (JFM). In Kenya, under such initiatives, communities have been able to self-organize into community forest associations (CFAs).
Community based micro hydro grids in developing countries have characteristics like those of man-made common pool resources like irrigation commons. While empirical testing of the conditions that enable collective participation and subsequent successful self-governance within irrigation commons and other CPRs is widely studied, there is very limited analysis of enabling conditions for energy commons.