Health: Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
The problem of sample selection complicates the process of drawing inference about populations. Selective sampling arises in many real world situations when agents such as doctors and customs officials search for targets with high values of a characteristic. We propose a new method for estimating population characteristics from these types of selected samples. We develop a model that captures key features of the agent's sampling decision.
South Africa’s total expenditure on health equates to almost 9% of its gross domestic product, which is above the average of other countries classified as middle-income countries. Notwithstanding this investment, indicators of health outcomes remain relatively lower when compared to the same countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of public health expenditure in improving health outcomes in South Africa. Panel estimations techniques were used using data for the country’s nine provinces over the period 2005 to 2014.
This study identifies the key determinants of access to healthcare in Africa and estimates the short-run and long-run effects of these determinants. Panel data from 37 African countries, collected from the World Bank Development Indicators and World Health Organisation databases for the period 1995-2012, were analysed using the pooled mean group estimators. Income appeared the strongest determinant of access in the long run in countries in Africa included in the sample. Access to healthcare was a necessity with the long-run income elasticity for access to healthcare being 0.1149.
We examine the association between indicators of real GDP per capita and the ACP1 genetic adaptation to disease and ultraviolet radiation environment. We find a strong impact that varies across the A, B, and C alleles. The result is robust to controlling for reversal of fortunes, migration, and potential endogeneity of the genetic adaptation.
South Africa waived user fees for primary health care, first in 1994, and again, in 1996. Since the 1994 plan focused on young children and older adults, as well as pregnant and nursing mothers, the 1996 change, which waived fees for the remainder of the population, subject to means tests, can be examined via differences-in-differences (DD). DD is applied to a subsample of children, underpinned by a multinomial logit regression of health-seeking behavior amongst ill and injured children.
This paper examines regional differences in the effect of user fee removal in rural areas of Zambia on the use of health institutions for delivery. The analysis uses quarterly longitudinal data covering 2003q1-2008q4. When unobserved heterogeneity, spatial dependence and quantitative supply-side factors are incorporated in the Interrupted Time Series (ITS) design, user fee removal is found to immediately increase aggregate institutional deliveries, although the national trend was unaffected.
The cost-effectiveness of intervening with a set of HIV/AIDS interventions in low HIV prevalence areas (LPA) and high HIV prevalence areas (HPA) in South Africa is analysed. The rationale for this analysis is to assess the suspected effect of interaction between the intervention and area of implementation, on cost-effectiveness. The paper used the Markov model, which tracked a cohort of patients over their lifetime in each area.
The public healthcare sector in developing countries face many challenges, including weak healthcare systems and under resourced facilities that deliver poor outcomes relative to total healthcare expenditure. Healthcare delivery, access to healthcare and cost containment has the potential for improvement through more efficient healthcare resource management. Global references demonstrate that information technology (IT) has the ability to assist in this regard through the automation of processes, thus reducing the inefficiencies of manually driven processes and lowering transaction costs.