G20

Financial Institutions and Services: General

Unveiling the Energy Saving Role of Banking Performance in Sub-Sahara Africa

Using a two-step system generalized method of moment (GMM) technique and a panel data for 43 sub-Sahara African countries from 1998 to 2012, this article examines the drivers of energy intensity. Specifically, the article tests two hypotheses: (1) improved banking performance does not foster energy efficiency improvements, and (2) institutional quality (democracy) does not compromise the energy-saving role of improved banking performance. The study uses a unique bank-based data by Andrianova et al.

Financial Structure and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

This study examines the effect of financial structure on economic growth in Sub Saharan Africa. The sample consists of both low and middle income countries, whose financial systems range from poorly developed to relatively well- developed in the context of developing countries. Using dynamic panel estimation techniques, the study investigates both the short and long-run effects of financial structure on growth, focusing on 14 SSA countries over the period 1980-2014.

Spatial Externalities, Openness and Financial Development in SADC: Beyond the Multilateral Monetary Agreement

This study empirically evaluates spatial externalities in financial development in SADC in line with spatial proximity theory, which asserts that externalities increase with proximity. Precisely, the study tests if financially less developed economies in SADC benefit from linkages with and proximity to South Africa, a financially developed economy. The Spatial Durbin Model estimated using GMM and Dynamic Panel Estimations, establishes that financial development in the SADC region is sensitive to space and hence not immune to spatial externalities.

Some Clarity on Banks as Financial Intermediaries and Money 'Creators'

Although the phrase ‘banks create money’ forms part of popular discourse, it has precipitated a factually incorrect understanding of a bank’s role in the money creation process. Bank money creation is the result of an underlying value-for-value exchange transaction; the bank facilitates the transaction, takes over responsibility for obligations created and records the money created—the bank is not the source of money creation. This has long been understood, even if it is not immediately evident, but contemporary explanations have confounded the issue.

Monetary Policy and Balance Sheets

This paper evaluates the strength of the balance sheet channel in the U.S. monetary policy transmission mechanism over the past three decades. Using a Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregression model on an expanded data set, including sectoral balance sheet variables, we show that the balance sheets of various economic agents act as important links in the monetary policy transmission mechanism.

Half empty, half full and why we can agree to disagree forever

Aumann (1976) derives his famous we cannot agree to disagree result under the assumption of rational Bayesian learning. Motivated by psychological evidence against this assumption, we develop formal models of optimistically, resp. pessimistically, biased Bayesian learning within the framework of Choquet expected utility theory. As a key feature of our approach the posterior subjective beliefs do, in general, not converge to “true” probabilities. Moreover, the posteriors of different people can converge to different beliefs even if these people receive the same information.

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