D78

Positive Analysis of Policy-Making and Implementation

The effects of price and non-price policies on cigarette consumption in South Africa

The health consequences of smoking are serious and have been frequently detailed. A reduction in tobacco-related mortality hinges upon the ability to reduce tobacco usage. There is overwhelming evidence that higher cigarette prices reduce cigarettes demand, but little is known about the combined effect of price and non-price policies. This paper extends the analysis of price elasticities by estimating the effect of changes in price and non-price legislations in South Africa.

An Economic Model of the Apartheid State

Rather than a rigid racial ideology, it is argued that South African apartheid was a pragmatic response of a white oligarchy to changing economic and political constraints. Consequently, the degree to which apartheid principles were applied and enforced by the South African state varied over time. A public choice model is developed to explain apartheid as endogenous policy, the parameters of which are determined by political support-maximizing politicians.

The Consistency of Merger Decisions in a Developing Country: The South African Competition Commission

The South African Competition Commission's merger decisions for FY2002 through FY2009 are analyzed to empirically identify the factors historically influencing prohibition, conditional approval and unconditional approval. The key explanatory variables are linked to provisions of the 1998 Competition Act, such that the analysis provides insight into the consistency of merger decisions with respect to the legal requirements specified in the Act.

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