C21

Single Equation Models; Single Variables: Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions

"The Power of Nudging: Using Feedback, Competition and Responsibility Assignment to Save Electricity in a Non-Residential Setting”

We use behavioural insights to design nudges leveraging social comparison and assignment of responsibility aimed at reducing electricity consumption in a large provincial government office building with 24 floors. Results from a randomized control trial show that floors participating in a treatment with inter-floor competitions and tips reduced energy consumption by 9%, while those that also included floor-wise ‘energy advocates” reduced energy consumption by 14% over a period of 5 months.

Gender and Birth Order Effects on Intra-household Schooling Choices and Education Attainments in Kenya

In this paper, we investigate the effect of two important family characteristics-gender and birth order-on intra-household investments in, and educational outcomes of, children in Kenya. We measure intra-household education investments in children by household's decision to enrol children in private schools and educational outcomes by two variables, completed years of education and relative grade attainment.

Private Schools and Student Learning Achievements in Kenya

This papers examines the effect of private schools on literacy and numeracy skill acquisition among children mainly drawn from lower primary grades in Kenya. We apply a number of estimation approaches that accounts for endogeneity of school choice. We begin with the OLS, as a baseline model. We then estimate the household fxed effects (FE) model to control for unobservables at the household level. We supplement the OLS and FE models with the propensity score matching (PSM) technique. We find a significant private school advantage throughout these methodologies.

The impact of micro hydroelectricity on household welfare indicators

The use of small scale off-grid renewable energy for rural electrification is now seen as part of the sustainable energy solutions. The expectations from such small scale investment is that it can meet basic energy needs of a household and subsequently improve some aspects of the household welfare. However, these stated benefits remain largely hypothetical because there is data and methodological challenges in existing literature attempting to isolate such impact.

Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? Risk Aversion and Gender Discrimination in Assessment

This study exploits a natural experiment to evaluate the gender bias effect associated with negative marking due to gender-differentiated risk aversion. This approach avoids framing effects that characterize experimental evaluation of negative marking assessments. Evidence of a gender bias against female students is found. Quantile regressions indicate that female students in higher quantiles are substantially more adversely affected by negative marking.

Finding the benefits: Estimating the impact of the South African child support grant

The paper estimates the impact of the South African Child Support Grant (CSG) on child health, nutrition and education. Data from the 2008 South African National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS) are used. Two non-experimental treatment evaluation techniques, both relying on propensity scores, are applied to six different outcome variables. Using propensity score matching with a binary outcome variable, no convincing evidence of improvements on any of the outcome variables is found. A second technique is therefore also applied, using a generalised form of the propensity scores.

Value, Size and Momentum Portfolios in Real Time: The Cross-Section of South African Stocks

We implement a recursive out-of-sample method to examine anomalies-based ex-ante predictability in the cross-section of stock returns. We obtain a series of simulated out-of-sample returns, consistent with investors using only prior information when choosing predictor variables. We find that, by commonly used performance criteria, real-time trading strategies based on size, value and momentum effects would not consistently outperform a passive index of South African stocks - despite consistent in-sample excess returns.

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